There have been various announcements recently that conferences scheduled to take place in the coming months will be moving online. Some are now offering free participation, or at least substantially reduced fees, so I am planning to try to make up for not being able to travel by attending as many things as I can. This post is a round-up of all the things that are on my list; I will update it if there are any further announcements (at the moment, ALT-C and BERA are still scheduled to go ahead in September as planned). Hope this is useful for you too, and do let me know if you have any suggestions!

 

Networked Learning Conference

Coming up soon – 18th to 20th May. Free of charge, register online here: https://www.fritilmeld.dk/nlc/signup.html

EDEN

The EDEN conference is scheduled to take place from 21st to 24th June. Fees re not stated yet but will be ‘substantially reduced’: https://www.eden-online.org/2020_timisoara/

Web Science Conference

Scheduled for 7th to 10th July, this will now take place online. This is a very interesting inter-disciplinary conference, which usually includes some sessions related to Education. It won’t be free and fees are yet to be announced but will be ‘nominal’: https://websci20.webscience.org/

Social Media and Society

One day event in July (22nd). Free of charge to attend, no need to register, streaming information on the day: https://socialmediaandsociety.org/

Learning @ Scale

12th – 14th August. No information on the website at the moment about fees (I’ve wanted to go to this conference for years and not been able to afford it, hoping this is my chance!): https://learningatscale.acm.org/las2020/

EC-TEL

This conference had been scheduled for 14th to 18th September. It has been announced that it will be online instead – further details about timing and revised fee structure are yet to be announced. http://www.ec-tel.eu/index.php?id=957

Association of Internet Researchers

The AoIR conference will now be online and held over a two week period in October. The website states that the online events will only be open to members of the society, who must hold membership by 1st August – this is very cheap though (and even cheaper for students): https://aoir.org/aoir2020update/

CSCW (Computer Supported Co-operative Work)

This is another one which I’ve not been to but have always thought would be very interesting. It’s going to be held online from 17th to 21st October. There will be a fee – as yet not specificied, but will be substantially reduced: https://cscw.acm.org/2020/

OE Global

16th to 20th November: https://www.oeglobal.org/2020/05/06/open-education-global-2020-conference-is-transitioning-to-a-virtual-format/

ASCILITE

Will be held online, 30th November to 1st December. Note that the Call for Papers hasn’t opened yet so there is still the opportunity to participate as a presenter (deadline 6th July): https://mailchi.mp/855fb12c0dca/special-announcement-the-ascilite-conference

So much has changed about everyday life, for so many people, in recent weeks. As part of the measures introduced this month to try to curtail the spread of Covid-19 as much as possible, school closures have been introduced across the globe. At the time of writing, UNESCO estimates that around 87% of the total enrolled learners – that’s over 1.5 billion learners – are currently affected by school closures.

Consequently, there has been a wave of interest in distance education approaches, which are often associated (but not synonymous) with some form of educational technology. But which topics have been the focus of internet searches? This is something which I wanted to explore a little; it’s potentially useful to know in order to tailor support for the searchers, and also to document part of the massive shift we are seeing in education at the moment.

To do so, I’ve been looking at Google Trends. Below is a chart of the relative levels of interest worldwide, over the past month, for five terms – e-learning, online learning, distance learning, remote learning, and homeschooling (below). A ‘live’ version of the chart can be found here. Note that this list isn’t exhaustive, and I did search for some other terms and variations but didn’t include them here as interest was low or continued at its usual rate (e.g. “distance learning” is included here as it had a noticeable jump in interest, whereas “distance education” did not). However, these were terms which showed a marked spike during the week in which many school closures were announced.

 

I also looked into trends around particular types of educational technology, although this was more challenging as there are so many possibilities to search for. With a bit of trial and error, the following struck me as quite interesting: learning apps, online course, educational resources, mooc, and educational games (below). Again, the live version of the chart can be found here.

There are a few things to note here. First, “educational resources” (which is also a truncation of “open educational resources”) showed a modest peak but then declined, which may suggest that searchers aren’t looking for OER, although these could be really helpful. Second, interest in online courses and moocs doesn’t demonstrate a marked uptick at the time of school closures, but interest is growing gradually; I wonder whether this is related to more adults being at home as ‘lockdowns’ increase. Also, I had tried to include Zoom on the same chart, but couldn’t as it had increased so much in popularity compared to all the others that it distorted the scale too much.

This is only a fairly limited look at the ways in which people are seeking to adapt educational provision in this unprecedented situation, but it is quite interesting to start to think about what people are searching for, and how to try to help. I’ll be thinking more over the coming weeks about the issues for education through my work with The EdTech Hub, and will be sharing things through my blog and the Hub’s website.

Like many others, I find myself now in the position of needing to juggle academic work with also facilitating the education of a primary school-aged child, and looking after my nursery-aged child too. It is a fairly overwhelming prospect.

The number of links and resources I’ve received – via friends and family, and Facebook groups – has been a pleasant surprise though. Initially I was rather sceptical of what would be available, given that my children are very young.

I’ve added the collection of links I have so far to an Exhibit tool – which can be found here: http://www.katyjordan.com/resources/ . Note that I haven’t been through the list properly yet, but my plan is to look through them (with my daughter!) to check them out and populate brief descriptions and useful information to filter on (such as suitable age, subject, whether it is free or not, etc.) as we go.

If you have any suggestions to add, please do post a comment here! And if you’d like to help speed up the process of adding information to the database (it runs off a Google Sheet), also please do let me know and I can give you access (I think this would be a useful resource, when developed, for lots of people).

Uploading the author accepted manuscript to my institutional repository is now pretty much the first thing I do as soon as I have a new paper accepted (before even tweeting about it!). But – something which I have been thinking about this week, but had never really considered before – is the question, is it OK to reformat author accepted manuscripts/preprints for sharing?

Journal submission guidelines usually mean that the author has little leeway with formatting (e.g. must be 10 point Arial, double spaced text, that sort of thing). Some simple formatting tweaks would make things easier for the potential reader – for example, reducing the page count – and give the author more creative control over the presentation of the product of their hard work. But is this permissible? I’ve not got a definitive answer yet. For example, the Elsevier article sharing policy states that preprints and accepted manuscripts:

not be added to or enhanced in any way to appear more like, or to substitute for, the published journal article

My question is not motivated by wanting to imitate the formatting of the journal. But does this mean that it is OK to enhance a manuscript in a different way, such as applying your organisations’ in-house style guide, for example? I’d be very interested in hearing peoples’ views and experiences on this. Thanks!

 

Getting to grips with my role at the EdTech Hub, one of the things I have been thinking about recently is a question of where the links and overlaps lie between ‘EdTech for development’ (itself a broad term, with numerous synonyms and not-quite synonyms, such as ICT4D) and my more familiar ground of Open Education. This is something which is both of personal interest to me, and also the EdTech Hub, as being aware of the points of reference across different related communities within the field will potentially help to communicate its work and findings.

I am going to explore this through citation network analysis (no surprises there 😉 ) and will be presenting the findings at the OER20 conference in April (conference abstract below). I’ve got a plan about how to start the network (focusing on the most highly cited papers within the fields, in the past two years) but it remains to be seen how it will develop. I’ll share how it goes here in due course, but I also have two questions:

  • Can you recommend any recent key papers which I should ensure that I include in the sample?
  • I’m going to take open education, ICT4D and digital development as fields to focus on initially – are there any others that you would include?

(Image from the OER20 conference website, CC4.0 licensed – click image for link to source.)

Abstract

The EdTech Hub is a recently-instituted programme, to assess the potential for educational technology to enhance achievement for school-aged learners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and develop and evaluate new educational innovations within partner countries. The work of the Hub takes its lead from the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4, which seeks to ‘ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ (UN, 2019). The aim of the research is to understand how educational technology can support education systems change, improving outcomes for all learners in a scalable and sustainable way. To achieve this, participatory approaches and iterative co-design will be used, embedding the research within local practice and aligning with the theme of care.

Open education plays two roles within the work of the Hub. First, OER sit within the scope of the research, as the potential for Open Educational Resources (OER) to play a beneficial role in addressing educational inequalities is frequently linked to the challenges in educational systems within LMICs. To-date, this has been the focus of several research programmes, and there is an established and growing body of research literature on the topic (Hodgkinson-Williams & Arinto, 2017).

Second, the programme itself is committed to open practices and production of global public goods (Haßler, 2018). The Hub strives to effect positive changes at all levels of educational systems, and to do so will need concerted efforts across related fields such as Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), Digital Development and Open Development (Wagner, 2017). This raises a question of where the points of contact lie between these sectors, and open education. Where do the interests of the different communities overlap? Can areas with the potential for novel links be identified?

In this session, these issues will be examined through exploratory citation network analysis of a sample of literature across the sectors. By sampling recent literature on the topics, a network can be constructed using the relationships between papers and the literature they cite as a basis for connections. Salient features in the emergent network structure can reveal the influential highly cited nodes, and reveal sub-groups within a field through clusters, for example. As such, considering the literature cited can be an effective way to visualise different schools of thought within a research area (Weller, Jordan, DeVries & Rolfe, 2018).

References

Haßler, B. (2018) Global goods: Example document for licensing and publishing documents. Zenodo. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1201612.

Hodgkinson-Williams, C. & Arinto, P.B. (2017) Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South. Cape Town & Ottawa: African Minds, International Development Research Centre & Research on Open Educational Resources. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1005330

United Nations (2019) Sustainable Development Goal 4. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform website. Retrieved from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg4

Wagner, D. (2017) Technology for education in low-income countries: Supporting the UN Sustainable Development Goals. ICT-Supported Innovations in Small Countries and Developing Regions, Springer, pp. 51-74.

Weller, M., Jordan, K., DeVries, I. & Rolfe, V. (2018) Mapping the open education landscape: Citation network analysis of historical open and distance education research. Open Praxis, 10(2), 109-126.

This is a re-post of a blog post written recently as part of the EdTech Hub, which I joined in September last year. The last few months have whizzed by; at some point, I *will* fit in writing a post here about my new role! But in the meantime, here is a snippet of what I’ve been working on so far (link to original post in the title, below):

Reviewing the research literature in Educational Technology for Development: Balancing rigour and inclusivity

Katy Jordan Research Associate, EdTech Hub

Within the Research Sphere of the EdTech Hub, one of the main activities within the inception phase has been to conduct a literature review. Undertaking a literature review is established practice as a typical first step in any research project, to establish an informed foundation upon which to conduct further research.

The scope of the EdTech Hub is unusually wide for conducting a literature review. EdTech itself is a term which can be applied to a wide range of technologies used in educational settings. Similarly, the focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) encompasses a diverse range of countries, territories and regions.

Given the wide scope of the programme, a two-stage approach has been used: initially, a large-scale scoping review providing a breadth of understanding of the topic, followed by systematic reviews focused on particular themes. Systematic reviews consider papers published on a very specific topic and compare the findings across studies in detail. Although historically systematic reviews have their roots within health and biomedical sciences, systematic reviews are increasing in popularity as a research methodology within the social sciences (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Number of records returned via Scopus based on the query “a systematic review”, for journal papers within the Social Sciences (orange markers, left-hand axis). 2019 is incomplete (search undertaken 10/10/2019). The trend in number of articles indexed in Scopus for Social Sciences as a whole is included for comparison (grey markers, right-hand axis).

Before conducting a literature review, it is necessary to set certain bounds to define how literature will be found and selected for inclusion. Transparency in this respect is necessary to ensure that others reading the findings can judge to what extent there are limitations or strengths to the evidence base, and hence how reliable the findings are. Setting and clearly articulating the sources of literature and inclusion criteria is also central to the rigour of systematic reviews as a methodology as it facilitates the replicability of approaches and results. Details such as this are published in search protocol documents.

However, there are no established protocols associated with this topic, so there was an immediate question as to how we should tailor our approach. To learn from the field and develop a protocol, we drew upon 22 existing literature review-based papers with foci related to those of the EdTech Hub. Further details will be available shortly in our forthcoming working paper (docs.edtechhub.org/lib/NM6CPLE9, DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3523943), but here we will focus on an issue which was surfaced in the analysis and required particular attention in our context: the issue of balancing academic rigour with inclusivity.

Two of the main components of a literature review protocol are the sources of information, and setting the criteria which found literature will be judged against in order to be included. In terms of finding literature, databases and other data sources, such as academic journals and institutional repositories, were listed in the papers dealing specifically with literature reviews (19 papers). The databases and their frequency, grouped according to subject area, are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Research databases and other data sources used within the sampled documents, arranged according to broader subject area. Number of occurrences in brackets.

In the papers reviewed, a range of criteria was recorded for the inclusion and exclusion of literature. The most frequently used criteria included whether articles were peer-reviewed; being published in an academic journal; presence of particular keywords in title and/or abstract; type of research (e.g. empirical); and language.

Underpinning several of these factors is an assumption that being published in academic journals is a sign of quality, and academic journal articles are readily indexed within the main databases used for literature searches. However, it is important to caution against relying exclusively on academic journals as a source for the EdTech Hub’s review, as publishing in academic journals demonstrates biases according to location (see Figure 3, for example).

 

Figure 3: Global map, where territory size is depicted proportional to the number of scientific journal articles published in 2016. Worldmapper website: https://worldmapper.org/maps/science-paperspublished-2016/?sf_action=get_data&sf_data=results&_sft_product_cat=science&sf_paged=2 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

The EdTech Hub’s approach needs to pay particular attention to setting the bounds of its literature review in a way which balances rigour with inclusivity, which is also important for anyone considering a literature review around LMICs. Database searches will be supplemented by opportunistic searches through experts and informal networks. Grey literature is at risk of being excluded by database searches yet blogs, presentations, informal publications and other communications may play an important role.

Searching for literature is just the first step of the process, and we will be writing further blog posts along the way. Following on from highlighting the need to be aware of biases in academic publishing, in the next blog post from the Research Sphere, we will discuss how we have applied the need for inclusivity to our inclusion criteria.

When I used to work for the TLRP TEL Programme, I had a bit of a side project going to use network analysis to explore the literature cited by the different projects, as a way of pulling out the classic papers and common ground across the programme.

If you’ve not familiar with the TLRP TEL programme, it followed on from the main phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme. It was jointly funded by the ESRC and EPSRC, and the main phase ran from 2008 to 2011, during which eight major projects were funded, spanning a range of topics in Technology-Enhanced Learning. These included (thanks to the Internet Archive for links):

  • Echoes: developed a multimodal digital environment to help develop children’s social interactions and support exploratory learning
  • Ensemble: semantic web technologies for case-based learning in Higher Education
  • HapTEL: developed haptic technology for dentistry students
  • Interlife: used Second Life to help support young people to develop social skills and navigate transitions
  • LDSE: A learning design support environment for teachers and lecturers
  • Migen: Intelligent support for mathematical generalisation
  • Personal inquiry: Designing for Evidence-based Enquiry across Formal and Informal Settings of Learning
  • Synergynet: Multi-touch tabletops for collaborative learning

With such a diverse range of technologies and settings, there was logically a question throughout of what it was that brought everyone together; what was distinct about TEL. The programme addressed this by organising events and publications around a range of cross-programme themes – links to the main outputs below:

Another way of exploring the threads that ran through the programme would be to look for commonalities in the literature which the projects cite. This could potentially have formed the basis of a collection of classic works in TEL as a reference bank, a bit like the one that Chris Davies and Rebecca Eynon produced in 2015 (‘Education and Technology – major themes in Education’). I had a first go at this about ten years ago (!), using Touchgraph. It was a bit clunky though, and formatting the data took a while, so sadly it went unfinished. This was before I had discovered Gephi though, and what was a lot of work back then is now a lot easier. (I used this approach on the Openness and Education literature recently, for example).

It has remained something I’d like to have followed-up on though. Being versed in Gephi it is now a lot easier for me to do this, and the time delay at least means that all the papers which were being submitted, reviewed or in press are now available for inclusion.

Getting the data

I couldn’t find my original files, so set about getting the data from scratch. The TEL website is now gone, so I looked up the projects in the ESRC Research Catalogue website. The project pages in the catalogue list a variety of publication types associated with each of the projects. It had been my intention to include the full range of publications in the analysis; however, it quickly became apparent that many of the items were not available online, either having not been online originally or that the links were no longer functional (particularly conference items). As a result, I decided to focus on just the journal papers associated with each project as these were the most consistently available (even a couple of those had disappeared in the relatively short space of time since the end of the programme) (and readers, take note: please use your institutional repositories!).

This yielded a list of 66 target papers across the eight projects. Four could not be located, and a further four could be found, but I wasn’t able to access the full texts. A total of 58 papers were therefore included. From each, the reference lists were copied into Excel, and (where multiple records existed) consistently formatted. The data was exported as a two-column CSV file, of ‘source’ (cited article) and ‘target’ (TEL project paper which cited it) and imported into Gephi.

Exploring the network

The network contained a total of 1,978 nodes (each node being either one of the sampled papers, or any resource cited by them – including other papers, books, chapters, conference items, government sources or websites). When visualising the network, it wasn’t immediately obvious where the bounds of each project lay. If there was nothing in common at all, you would expect to see eight distinct clusters of papers, one for each project. However, in practice, there were varying degrees of overlap (click to view a larger version):

To see where the project boundaries do lie, I colour-coded the sample of journal papers according to projects (I’ve also adjusted the node size the reflect in-degree, to make them stand out a bit more) (again, click to open a bigger version):

(note that the black node was a joint publication, with authors from three of the projects.)

It is quite interesting here to see how closely related the projects were to each other, and also within projects there is a reflection of the extent to which different strands within the projects were writing together or working in parallel.

The nodes that I am really interested in are the ones which represent articles which were cited by two or more of the projects. To narrow it down, all the items which were cited only once can be removed, which dramatically reduces the size of the network (now 315 nodes):

I examined the network to look for examples which met the criteria (cited by at least two of the projects – I didn’t count items associated with the black node though as this had a disproportionate overlap with a paper in one of the three projects it was associated with) and labelled the results:

The result of this was a list of 42 publications (in alphabetical order):


Anastopoulou, S., Sharples, M., Ainsworth, S. & Crook, C. (2009) Personal inquiry: linking the cultures of home and school with technology mediated science inquiry. In Mobile Learning Cultures across Education, Work and Leisure (eds N. Pachler & J. Seipold), pp. 55-58. WLE Centre, London. Proceedings of the 3rd WLE Mobile Learning Symposium, London, 27th March 2009. ISSN 1753?3385.

Anderson, T. & Whitelock, D. (2004) The educational semantic web: Visioning and practicing the future of education. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1: 1-15.

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. & Lassila, O. (2001) The Semantic Web. Scientific American 284, 34-43.

Bruner, J.S. (1966) Toward a Theory of Instruction. The Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000) Research methods in education (5th ed.). Taylor & Francis Ltd.

Conlon, T. & Pain, H. (1996) Persistent collaboration: a methodology for applied AIED. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 7, 219-252.

Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M., Blaye, A. & O’Malley, C. (1996) The evolution of research on collaborative learning. In E. Spada & P. Reiman (Eds), Learning in Humans and Machine: Towards an interdisciplinary learning science (pp. 189-211). Oxford: Elsevier.

Druin, A. (2002) The role of children in the design of new technology. Behaviour and Information Technology 21(1), 1-25.

Engestrom, Y. (1999) Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Perspectives on Activity Theory (eds Y. Engestrom, R. Miettinen & R.?L. Punamaki), pp. 19-38. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Facer, K. & Sandford, R. (2010) The next 25 years? Future scenarios and future directions for education and technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 26, 74-93.

Fullan, M. (1991) The new meaning of educational change. Cassell, London.

Good, J. & Robertson, J. (2006) CARSS: A framework for learner centred design with children. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 16, 381-413.

Greeno, J. (1991) Number sense as situated knowing in a conceptual domain. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 22 (3), pp. 170-218.

Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006) Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.

Kobbe, L., Weinberger, A., Dillenbourg, P., Harrer, A., Hamalainen, R., Hakkinen, P. & Fisher, F. (2007) Specifying computer-supported collaboration scripts. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2(2), 211-224.

Kolb, D. A. (1984) Experiential learning: Experience as a source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Koper, R. & Olivier, B. (2004) Representing the learning design of units of learning. Educational Technology and Society 7, 97� 111.

Kraemer, K., Dedrick, J. & Sharma, P. (2009) One laptop per child: vision vs. reality. Communications of the ACM, 52 (6), pp. 66-73.

Landauer, T. (1995) The trouble with computers: usefulness, usability, and productivity. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of educational technology, 2nd ed., London: Routledge.

Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewins, A. & Silver, Christina (2007). Using software in qualitative research: A step-by-step guide. London: Sage.

Merrill, M.D. (1994) Instructional design theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publication.

Moss, J., & Beatty, R. (2006). Knowledge building in mathematics: supporting collaborative learning in pattern problems. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 1, 441-465.

Mulholland P., Collins, T., Gaved, M., Wright, M., Sharples, M., Greenhalgh, C., Kerawalla, L., Scanlon, E., and Littleton, K. (2009). Activity guide: an approach to scripting inquiry learning. In Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Brighton 6-10 July 2009.

Naismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G., & Sharples, M. (2004). Literature review in mobile technologies and learning, NESTA Futurelab Series.

Noss, R., Healy, L. & Hoyles, C. (1997) The construction of mathematical meanings: connecting the visual with the symbolic. Educational Studies in Mathematics 33, 203-233.

Papert, S. (1980) Mindstorms: Children, Computers and Powerful Ideas. Basic Books, New York.

Piper, A., O’Brien, E., Morris, M., & Winograd, T. (2006) SIDES: A cooperative tabletop computer game for social skills development. Proceedings of the 2006 20th Anniversary Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 10. ACM.

Roschelle, J. (2003). Unlocking the learning value of wireless mobile devices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), pp. 260-272.

Roschelle, J., & Pea, R. (2002). A walk on the WILD side: How wireless handhelds may change computer-supported collaborative learning International Journal of Cognition and Technology, 1(1), 145-168.

Schon, D. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practioner: how professionals think in action. Temple Smith, London.

Schwartz, D.L., Brophy, S., Lin, X. & Bransford, J.D. (1999) Software for managing complex learning: examples from an educational psychology course. Educational Technology Research and Development 47, 39-59.

Sfard, A. (1998) `On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One’, Educational Researcher 27(2): 4-13.

Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R. Andrews, & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage handbook of e-learning research (pp. 221-247). London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Slotta, J.D. (2010). Evolving the classrooms of the future: The interplay of pedagogy, technology and community. In K. M�kitalo-Siegl, F. Kaplan, J. Zottmann, & F. Fischer (Eds.) Classroom of the future. Orchestrating collaborative spaces (pp. 215-242). Rotterdam: Sense.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23.

Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wingate, U. (2007), A framework for transition: supporting learning to learn in higher education. Higher Education Quarterly, 61 (3), pp. 391-405.

Yin, R.K. (2003) Case study research: Design and methods. London: Sage Publications.

There were a couple which I was slightly surprised did not make the cut (Larry Cuban, oversold and underused, and Ton de Jong on computer simulations). The list includes a few methodological texts (e.g. Yin, Cohen et al.) and some which are perhaps slightly too specialised, but I think that overall anyone as a student or newer researcher in TEL would benefit from reading or being aware of most of the literature surfaced by this approach.

The other advantage of time passing between the TEL programme and now is that it would also be possible to look at onward citations of the projects’ papers, which could be interesting to see how the topics addressed by the TEL projects have changed over time and where they sit in relation to current research agendas in TEL.